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New Surface Mount Diode Package Up To 30kV

Dean Technology have introduced a longer high voltage surface-mount diode package covering 5,000 to 30,000 volts. The new package supports a much wider range of voltage and current performance than existing axial lead components. Custom diodes are also available for customers that have specific needs not met by the standard products.

The First Four Products: 5-15kV

The first four products released in this new size range from 5,000 to 15,000 volts with current handling up to 1,000 mA. The SLU08M and SLU15M use the same internal architecture as the axial lead UX-FOB and UX-F15B – parts that have been available from Dean Technology for many years and have continually out performed anything offered by competitors. The SLP05M and SLP10M are consistent with existing axial lead diodes supplied by Dean.

Increased Demand for Diode Package Variety

“We have been getting increased requests for variety in our surface mount diodes”, says Craig Dean, CEO of Dean Technology, Inc. “With this new package, we aim to meet those requests, and more. Throughout this year, we will release several new products in this size that will handle up to 30,000 volts. For engineers that want to take advantage of the time, quality, and cost advantages of surface mount technology, this is going to be an absolute win”.

SL Series Roadmap

Dean Technology has a long and extensive roadmap for new products in the SL series. A wide range of standard parts will be available covering from 5,000 to 30,000 volts and currents ratings that will cover most of the existing axial lead diode offerings. These products will be rolled out over the coming months, as well as an additional gull wing lead configuration.

Useful Links

High Voltage Diodes 

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New Genesys+ 5kW Programmable 1U Power Supply

TDK-Lambda recently launched the Genesys+™ series of programmable DC power supplies in a 1U 19” rack chassis. The 5kW model is the first in a series which uses Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology to improve performance, functionality and offers efficiencies up to 93%. Genesys programmable power supplies are used in applications such as component, aerospace and automotive testing, semiconductor fabrication, water treatment, plating and solar array simulation.

  • Constant current, constant voltage or constant power modes
  • Internal resistance simulation
  • Accepts three-phase 170-265Vac, 342-460Vac or wide range 342-528Vac inputs with active Power Factor Correction
  • 1U high, 19” (483mm) wide rack
  • Five voltage models initially available: 0-10V/500A, 0-20V/250A, 0-30V/170A, 0-300V/17A and 0-600V/8.5A

Improvements over standard Genesys range

  • Two user-programmable output control pins can activate external devices, such as load disconnect relays
  • Arbitrary waveform profiles (e.g. car battery simulation at vehicle start) of up to 100 steps
  • Advanced parallel master/slave system allows a multi PSU system to achieve dynamic response, ripple and noise performance comparable to a single power supply.
  • Up to four units can be connected in parallel using a data link cable. The master and slave units automatically detect the parallel data connection and set their parameters accordingly
  • Faster up and down programming response times speed up operation with user adjustable voltage and current slew rate control

Compatible with existing models

The new series is compatible with Genesys™ and Z+ models, using the same communication protocols and signals. All functions can be programmed via the front panel or remotely using the LAN (LXI 1.5), USB 2.0 or RS232/485 communications interfaces. An isolated analogue control and monitoring interface (0-5 or 0-10V) is also provided. GPIB (IEEE488) is available as an option.

Interface options

The Anybus CompactCom platform enables various interface options as they are introduced e.g. Devicenet, Ethercat, Modbus and Profibus. A full package of software drivers, waveform creator and virtual front panel GUI is provided.

Safety features

  • Safe Start – the power supply will return to its last operational settings after a power interruption but with the output disabled.
  • Auto Re-Start – the power supply returns to the last used operation settings after a power interruption.
  • Last Setting Memory – retains settings such as the output voltage/current, output on/off, OVP/UVL level, Fold-Back and Start-Up mode at each AC input turn-off sequence.
  • Built-in protective functions – include over voltage protection (OVP), under voltage limit (UVL), fold-back protection (FOLD) and over-temperature (OTP) protection.


Safety certifications include IEC/EN/UL 60950-1 with CE marking for the EMC, LV (low voltage) and RoHS Directives. The series conforms to the industrial environment IEC/EN61326-1 standard for conducted EMI, radiated EMI and EMC immunity.

Useful Links

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Comparison of Transducer Technologies for Current Measurement

Three key questions to ask when choosing a current transducer:

  • How accurate does the measurement need to be?
  • What current range needs to be covered?
  • What is the operating temperature range?

Higher accuracy, a wider current range and greater stability over temperature are three major factors that will increase the cost of a transducer.

Current transducers in order of decreasing performance and cost:

Accuracy and Sources of Error

The total error of a current transducer is given by the sum of the ratio error, the thermal drift, the DC offset and the linearity. All four sources of error are related to the technology. Ratio Error (aka Gain Error) can be considered to be fixed since this is an error resulting from the number of turns in the transducer. The other three sources of error can vary during measurement.

The error equation

Total Error = Ratio Error + Thermal Drift + DC Offset + Linearity

Approximate Sources Of Error By Technology

Technology Ratio Error (aka gain error) Thermal Drift DC Offset Linearity
High Precision ppm ppm ppm ppm
Fluxgate 0.2% ppm ppm ppm
Closed Loop 0.4% 0.05% 0.1% 0.05%
Open Loop 1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2%


Most current transducers offer reasonable accuracy at room temperature. However, the performance of different technologies vary over a temperature range. High Precision and Fluxgate current transducers deliver temperature stability which can be quoted in terms of ppm/degC.  Whereas an open loop transducer will typically vary by 0.1%/degC, which over a range up to 85degC amounts to a sizeable error. If measurements are to be performed at room temperature then an open or closed loop transducer will probably be adequate. However, accurate measurements over a wide temperature range mean that a more costly Fluxgate or High Precision transducer is more appropriate.


Generally, high levels of accuracy rely on more expensive materials and manufacturing processes. It is therefore advisable to consider a transducer that delivers adequate performance over one that delivers a higher degree of accuracy if cost is an issue.

Current Range

All four technologies discussed here support current transducers up to 2kA, with high precision solutions available up to 26kA. For Open-Loop, Closed-Loop and Fluxgate transducers the cost penalty for increasing current range between 1kA and 2kA is much less than the cost per amp relationship below 1kA.

At very low currents, High Precision transducers are orders of magnitude more expensive than Fluxgate, Open-Loop or Closed-Loop because of the nature of the design. High Precision is therefore an expensive solution below 1kA, above which the difference is less marked.

Fluxgate Transducers

Unlike Open-Loop and Closed-Loop transducers, Fluxgate transducers are not based on the Hall effect. Accurate measurement of DC current is based on compensating the current linkage created by the current to be measured by creating an opposing current linkage flowing through a known number of turns. To obtain an accurate measurement, it is necessary to have a highly accurate device to measure the condition precisely.

Fluxgate detectors rely on the property of magnetic materials to exhibit a non-linear relationship between the magnetic field strength and the flux density. The detection of the zero flux condition is based on observing the variation of the magnetic field strength and the flux density. This phenomenon allows a Fluxgate transducer to be very sensitive to small values of a residual magnetic flux created by the current linkage and therefore maximise the level of the detector output signal.

Closed-Loop Hall Effect

Similar to Fluxgate transducers, the magnetic flux created by the primary current in a Closed Loop hall effect transducer is balanced by a complementary flux produced by driving a current through the secondary windings. A hall device (rather than a fluxgate) and associated electronic circuit are used to generate the secondary (compensating) current. The secondary current is therefore an image of the primary current. Closed loop transducers offer a wide frequency range, low temperature drift, good overall accuracy, a fast response time and excellent linearity.

Open-Loop Hall Effect

An Open-Loop Hall Effect transducer works because the magnetic flux created by the primary current is concentrated by a magnetic circuit into an air gap which is then measured using a Hall device. The output signal from the Hall device is then conditioned to provide an exact representation of the primary current at the output. Open-Loop Hall Effect transducers are small, light, offer low power consumption and a wide measuring range.

Useful Links:

Hall effect current transducers
Zero flux precision current transducers
Rack mounted current transducers

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Barth Release 50kV Attenuator With <100ps Rise Time

US firm Barth electronics have released an ultra-wideband high voltage attenuator designed for measurement of signal rise times below 100ps.  The 2240-BENFP attenuator covers DC to 7GHz. The input connector is the new high voltage/high speed Barth 454 connector.  The output is a standard female N-type.

Barth attenuators such as the 2240-BENFP are typically used to measure HV pulses with fast rise times in pulse power applications such as flash X-ray, kicker systems or high power microwave systems.  Measuring fast rise times at 200mV is hard because of the requirement to minimise the size in order to reduce stray capacitance and inductance. However, at 50kV, you need space to hold off the voltage.  The combination of large size with lower stray capacitance and inductance is unique to Barth Electronics. Here at PPM Power we think that a 50kV attenuator covering 7GHz with <100pS rise time is a pretty big deal.

PPM supply a variety of high-performance attenuators from Barth. Typical applications include:

  • EMP simulation
  • EMP, ESD and lightning testing
  • Impulse radar
  • High power microwave

Custom products also include TEM Antennas, voltage probes, high voltage pulse connectors and pulse resistive probes.

Barth 2240 HV attenuator specification

Voltage Ratio 20/1 +/- 5% (26dB)
Maximum Input Voltage 25kV, 160ns FWHM
50kV, 40ns FWHM
Peak Input Energy 2.0 Joules (Watt Seconds)
Average Input Power 2.5W Maximum
Impedance 50 Ohm +/- 1%
Risetime through Unit <100ps
Bandwidth: DC to 7.0GHz
Reflection – TDR Input <4% to a 100ps rise time step
Output: <3% to a 100ps rise time step
Voltage Coefficient <1% at any voltage
Input connector Barth 454
Output connector N Female
Dimensions 4134mm long x 492mm wide x 787mm high
Weight 0.7Kg

Useful Links

Attenuators from PPM


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Astrol Announce 1500V 5kA Solid State DC Breakers

High power switch manufacturer Astrol Electronic has developed a new series of DC breakers with up to 1500V DC voltage capability. The liquid cooled units allow bi-directional current flow and can be used in high or low side power switching. Current ratings range from 500A to 5kA.  Switch-off current ranges up to 20kA. The DC breakers are designed to maximise flexibility when integrating DC-grids and protect against short-circuit currents in any part of the grid. Various voltage and current levels are realized using a modular structure and different configurations based on 3.3kV, 4.5kV and 6.5kV Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and diode modules.

Fast Fault Interruption

A solid-state breaker must interrupt the full current in microseconds. With such a time constraint, local fault protection must be performed autonomously by the switch control system without the need for external control or fault detection. In addition to rapid over-current protection, the breaker can be programmed to open according to a time-current profile. This allows the overall system to reconfigure the behavior of the DC-Breaker within certain pre-defined boundaries. The fast opening time of solid-state breakers limits the fault current and minimises the negative impact on the load. The current does not reach damaging levels and can be interrupted without forming an arc. Voltage reversal is therefore not required.

Block Diagram

Self-diagnostics and control interface

The internal self-diagnostic capability of the DC breaker units includes the gate drive unit as well as coolant temperature and pressure at both inlet and outlet. The interface to the overall controller is optical (glass or plastic) Modbus-TCP. However, other protocols are available on request.


  • DC-Voltage Capability up to 1500V
  • Current rating 0 – 5kA
  • Switch-off current up to 20kA
  • Very short off time in μs range
  • Totally isolated to the main grid
  • Can be used in high or low side power switching
  • Bidirectional current flow
  • Liquid cooling
  • Internal self-diagnostic capability
  • Gate Drive Unit
  • Water In- and Outlet Temperature
  • Water In- and Outlet Pressure
  • Interface to overall controller
  • Optical (Glass or Plastic)
  • Modbus-TCP
  • Other protocols on request
  • DNV-GL type approval (pending)

High voltage switches

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New LEM 2000A current transducer with integrated DSP

LEM IN2000 current transducer

LEM have announced a 2000A closed loop current transducer which uses a new approach to ripple cancellation at the fluxgate drive frequency.  Reduced ripple means an increased resolution and a higher signal to noise ratio than previous generations of current transducer.

The IN2000 fluxgate type current transducer integrates a high performance DSP in the feedback loop to maximise signal processing in the digital domain.  This ensures immunity to temperature effects, interference and supply voltage variation after the ADC. Offset and offset drift are also significantly improved.


Integrated DSP shapes the drive waveform

The DSP reduces fluxgate drive signal interference and ripple at a fixed frequency of 16kHz. Instead of simply switching the fluxgate voltage between positive and negative values, the drive waveform is shaped to reduce higher frequency harmonics. The remaining interference is eliminated by driving a ripple compensation coil. The DSP also includes flash memory which stores calibration parameters for individual transducers. Ripple compensation is kept constant using a local loop to keep the fluxgate drive constant. Earlier transducers allow the fluxgate excitation frequency to vary in order to keep the current amplitude constant.

High accuracy and low noise over temperature

The IN2000 delivers high accuracy and low noise over a wide temperature range. After calibration, the remaining peak-to-peak ripple is less than 50ppm (0.005%) relative to the full scale transducer output between -40 and +85 degC.

Comparison with previous generation

The graph below compares the IN2000 transducer output ripple at the fluxgate drive frequency to a previous generation transducer. Before calibration, the ripple of the compensation circuit is comparable with the spikes of the previous generation. After calibration, the ripple disappears into the noise at the output.

Shielding from interference

The IN2000 uses a metallic housing to shield from external sources of interference. EMC immunity is further improved by locating the fluxgate inside the primary magnetic circuit.

Overload and supply voltage fault detection

The IN2000 reacts to overload conditions and is self-protected by software that checks external and internal supply voltages. When a fault is detected, the IN2000 gives a status output on a dedicated connector pin.

Target applications

The IN2000 has a measuring range up to 3000A and is intended to deliver the high levels of performance required for increasingly demanding applications such as test equipment, medical equipment, precision motor control and metering.


Useful links

Current transducers



IN2000S Datasheet

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New AgileSwitch SiC gate driver optimised for 62mm modules

To support the rapid migration of high-power industrial systems from IGBTs to silicon carbide (SiC) devices, AgileSwitch has announced a series of plug-and-play SiC MOSFET gate drivers for 62mm modules. Typical applications include heavy-duty traction vehicles, auxiliary power units in trains and induction heating systems. The patented Augmented Turn-Off™ switching technique, high noise-immunity design and the advanced monitoring/fault reporting facilitate conversion from IGBTs to 62mm SiC MOSFET power modules.

Designers want high speed switching using smaller, lighter, less expensive system components

“Designers want the benefits of switching at higher speeds using smaller, lighter, less expensive system components,” says Rob Weber, CEO of AgileSwitch. “Typically, this can only be achieved by reducing the switching efficiency, which effectively negates much of the benefit. The 62EM series enables higher switching frequencies and high efficiency by dramatically reducing the secondary effects of high switching frequency: voltage overshoots, ringing and false short circuit reporting.”

Safe operation at higher frequencies

By reducing turn-off spikes and ringing, SiC MOSFET modules can be safely operated at the higher frequencies that enable dramatic increases in power conversion density. This allows SiC MOSFET modules to be operated closer to their rated specifications, resulting in size, cost and performance improvements.

Designed for harsh environments

The 62EM gate driver is designed for harsh, high-noise environments. It is equipped with powerful diagnostic and troubleshooting tools and it continuously monitors critical parameters such as temperature and DC link voltage. A white paper describing the performance improvements achieved using ATOff is available.

White Paper


Effects of Augmented Turn-Off on Silicon Carbide Module Performance

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Best DC link capacitor in the world? Power Ring from SBE

Power-ring-capacitor spray-end-diagram

How good is a Power Ring capacitor?

The Power Ring design results in lower losses, lower inductance and a higher ripple current rating than traditional film capacitor technology. The ring shape provides extremely low internal losses (ESR) and dramatically lowers the inductive properties (ESL). SBE’s Power Ring capacitors show ESR values as low as 0.15 mOhm for a 1000µF – 600V DC Link.

The graph of temperature versus ripple current (above) illustrates the huge improvement in thermal performance delivered by the Power Ring design versus a conventional array of film capacitors. This performance improvement translates to a more efficient use of microfarads where high ripple current is an issue. Design can be optimised for current-handling rather than having to “bulk up” on capacitance only for current handling survival and lifetime requirements – a strategy which has the side-effects of increased cost and size.

How do they do it?

The ultra-low ESR is achieved by shortening the current path between the electrodes. SBE’s patent-pending segmented end spray approach divides the metal end spray into “floating” segments (see diagram). Unlike conventional capacitors, the loss between film and end spray metalisation is so low that current in the end spray can be the dominant loss contributor. The capacitor element ESR can be as low as 50μΩ and the ESR of the end spray/braid can be less than 10μΩ.

Power ring v snubber capacitor

A Power Ring DC link capacitor with integrated bus bar offers a loop inductance that can eliminate the need for a snubber circuit. Snubber capacitors get very hot since they are connected to the IGBT pins (often the hottest point other than under the die itself) and are almost never directly cooled due to the difficulty of connecting cooling plates. Their small size and poor cooling mean snubber capacitors are usually the weak link in the reliability chain for an inverter.
As usable operating voltage increases there can be a tendency to add a snubber to get every bit of safe operating voltage out of a system. The integrated Power Ring capacitor is a more effective method of reducing overshoot, and therefore increasing safe operating voltage, without compromising reliability or system lifetime.

In short…

A cooler DC link capacitor means a longer lifetime. A lower ESL means reduced overshoot and undershoot which reduces stress. Removing the requirement for a snubber capacitor means lower costs, a smaller design and a longer lifetime.

Useful links

Power Ring capacitors

GT series – snubber capacitors

KPST series snubber capacitors

Capacitors from PPM Power


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ESP high pulse load resistor


Compact solution for high power pulsed applications

ESP resistors from EBG provide a highly compact solution for high power, pulsed, low frequency applications such as:

  • Inrush current limiting
  • Capacitor pre-charge and discharge
  • Motor control units
  • Power supplies,
  • Battery charging systems
  • Inverter drives.

Right now, these resistors are popular in electric vehicle subsystems as pre-charge resistors and in-rush current limiting devices for industrial power control systems.

ESP resistor

Large energy pulses

The special resistive element provides a highly reliable, non-inductive current path capable of handling large energy pulses up to 3300 joules over one second.

Small footprint

The EBG ESP resistor has a very small footprint when compared with thick film, ceramic and wire wound resistors with equivalent peak power ratings, an essential feature for applications where where space is very limited such as electric vehicles or military systems.

Resistor technology comparison table

Resistor Technology Peak Power Rating Physical Size
Thick film + x
Wire wound ++ xxxx
Ceramic +++ xxxx
EBG ESP +++ x

Superb build quality

The resistor has superb build quality with large end caps and M4 threads for multiple mounting options. Two diameter sizes are available: 14mm and 20mm. Both sizes are 62mm in length with resistance values between 10 ohms and 1K ohms. Tolerances are +/-5% or +/-10%. If you require tighter specifications please contact a member of the PPM Power technical sales team on 01793 784389.

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LeClanché equivalents to obsolete Epcos MKV (B25835) caps

TDK / EPCOS have now withdrawn their MKV (B25835) series of capacitors which are based on polypropylene in oil – now a rather outmoded technology. For customers seeking a replacement, LeClanché supply dry film caps using the latest metallised polypropylene film technology. In most cases these represent a drop-in alternative yet provide all of the advantages of film technology due to LeClanché’s unique design and innovative manufacturing process.

  • No hazardous materials
  • No liquids
  • Self-healing film
  • Mount in any position
  • Very long lifetimes
  • “Soft” landing at end-of-life

Examples of LeClanché equivalents for EPCOS B25835 MKV series

TDK / Epcos / Siemens Capacitor Leclanché Capacitor Voltage Capacitance
B25835K1105K7 PAM 150-1.0 cv4 (K) 1.5kVAC 1µF
B25835M0104K007 PAM 140-010 cv4 (K) 1.4kVAC 100nF
B25835M6474K007 PAM 90-047 cv4 (K) 900VAC 470nF
B25835K2104K007 PAM 340-010 cv4 (K) 3.4kVAC 100nF
B25835M0105K007 PAM 140-1.0 cv4 (K) 1.4kVAC 1 µF
B25835M6225K7 PPM 160-2.2 cv4 (K) 1.6kVAC 2.2 µF
B25835M0225K007 PAM 140-2.2 cv4 (K) 1.4kVAC 2.2 µF
B25835-M474-K7 PAM 140-047 cv4 (K) 1.4kVAC 470nF
B25835M2474K7 PAM 340-047 cv4 (K) 3.4kVAC 470nF

This is not an exhaustive list. Please contact PPM for more information.

Capacitors from PPM Power


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More Information?

Telephone +44 (0)1793 784389 or email: sales@ppm.co.uk